Sunday, February 23, 2020
Marketing - Essay Example Studies have shown the increased rate of smokers among the population especially among the youth. Ã¢â¬Å"Smoking kills around 114,000 people in the UK each year.Ã¢â¬ (Petrie 2007). It is where the relevance of the product and the topic under study lies. The topic is chosen in order to analyze the prospects of the company by launching the product. The final report is in the form of a report addressed to the top level executives of the company. The report is intended to conduct a study in detail about the marketability of Ã¢â¬ËsmokersÃ¢â¬â¢ choiceÃ¢â¬â¢. The product aims to carve a niche of the health product market through the launch of smokerÃ¢â¬â¢s choice. Therefore, the report studies in detail the average smokers in the population, the market position of the toothpaste, the customer acceptability, etc. It is a report that uses standard statistical tools for the data analysis and interpretations. The primary aim of this report is a market study. The report is intended to study the market and to make required changes in the strategies if needed. This is a company project and the organization is going to benefit by knowing its market and market position. The tooth paste Ã¢â¬ËsmokerÃ¢â¬â¢s choiceÃ¢â¬â¢ is launched by the company named Oral Care Plc. Ã¢â¬Å"The oral care market is worth $7.5 billion at retail and headed for $8.9 billion by 2012.Ã¢â¬ (Oral care products on the U.S. 2007). The tooth paste is the main product of the company at present. The product is aimed at conquering dual markets, the health care and the personal care sector. The tooth paste is very effective in whitening the teeth. But the main feature of the product is that it helps to stop the smoking habits of the people. The mouth after being brushed with smokersÃ¢â¬â¢ choice brings a bad taste when it comes in contact with smoke thus helping the people to stop the smoking habit. The toothpaste will keep this effect in the mouth for 18 hours. Even though the product belongs to the
Friday, February 7, 2020
Law 2050 Consumers and the Law - Essay Example Hence, today in order to protect the rights of the customers who are the consumers of the product and services, we have the consumer rights. The consumer Rights says that if a customer buys a product and is not satisfied with the quality or if it does not fit into the requirement of using the product or has a false claim, then he has the right to recourse either by getting the product repaired, replaced or a refunded depending on the concern and the degree of dissatisfaction by the customer. These rights also cover service contracts and online shopping also. The Abuzaid vs. Mother Care U.K. Ltd is a perfect example of violation of Consumer Rights. To understand the main issues of the case, a brief summary of the history describing the background is essential. The product, Cosy toes which is a sleeping bag which is primarily used for children and infants to attach the elastic straps with the push-chair, was brought by the mother of the claimant for his brother. It consisted on two ela stic straps which were supposed to be fastened around the arm chair securing the back of the person. The elastic strap (almost 7-8 inches long) had to be joined with the metal buckle. While attaching the buckle of the straps to the chair, the elastic straps slipped past the hand and the buckle had made a direct hit in his eye thereby causing a permanent injury. The accident was so serious that he had to be immediately taken to the emergency department of the hospital by ambulance. Hence, after nearly escaping to loose oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sight a positive step to appeal for the Consumer Protection law was taken. A case was filed against Mothercare Ltd, UK under the Consumer Protection Act and the claim against damage under the Common Law of negligence on the part of the seller of the good. It was claimed that the cause of the injury was primarily because of the Ã¢â¬ËdefectiveÃ¢â¬â¢ nature of the product and the manufacturer of the producer should have been sensitive enough to foresee su ch implications causing such serious damage to the individual and hence the negligent claim was made under the Common law of negligence. The Common law of negligence states that if any individual has suffered an injury due to the negligence of another person. However, certain conditions need to be made to substantiate the clause of the Act. The Ã¢â¬ËplaintiffÃ¢â¬â¢ must be able to substantiate proofs like failure to establish reasonable care, damages that has been made which is other than economic losses. Thus in order to be eligible for this claim the claimant has to provide proofs that the individual had suffered proofs that the individual had suffered personal injury or loss which was evitable as per the claim of Abouzaid ,the sufferer of the accident.. The defendant on the other hand claimed that the incident that had occurred was a sort of Ã¢â¬Ëcontributory negligenceÃ¢â¬â¢ on the part of the claimant. According to this Act the defence can retort on the claim made by th e claimant on negligence that the damage or injury was cause to the individual due to his or her own personal negligence and hence the manufacturer or the seller of the particular product could not be blamed or penalised for it. Mother care agued that the product cannot be claimed to be defective in the first instance. This is because when the particular product was made available to the customers, no such previous instances of injury had been reported. Further, at the time when the accident had occurred, in 1990, the consumers could also not expect quite understandably and
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Music in Films Essay Talents are strewn around everywhere in the form of music, acting, editing, singing, etc. Stories and themes are left undiscovered in the slums of India. Who would pick them up and give an artistic touch? Hats off to Danny Boyle, an English director who did it. He took the challenge of making it to the silver screen and ended up with Oscars, the highest authority on movies that acknowledged Slum Dog Millionaire with 8 out of 10 nominations. An 18-year old boy Jamal who was raised in Mumbai slum wins 10 million dollars in a quiz competition which is popularly known as Ã¢â¬Å"Who will be the millionaire. Ã¢â¬ in Indian television show. As he keeps winning, the doubt Ã¢â¬Å"How an uneducated tea supplier working in a call center could answer all questions correctly? Ã¢â¬ raises. Was he cheating? An obvious question that arises in the minds of everyone which the movie alone could answer. Just one more question the next day will make him a millionaire. That night, Jamal was taken to police station and was beaten brutally on charges of cheating in the quiz competition. The answer to the question Ã¢â¬Å"How Jamal would know the answers to all the questions? Ã¢â¬ is the central theme of this movie with which the entire story is built. Usually rich ones with good schoolings have better access to quiz competitions with the probability of winning. But Jamal had no formal education. The vicious streets of Mumbai, the horrific nights, the villainous characters around taking every opportunity to exploit poor children like him are all the lessons Jamal went through in the open and unsafe streets of Mumbai. The insecurity for the poor in the slums and the social weaknesses of the Indian society is brought about by the movie in a thrilling fashion. Thugs turning children blind and making them beggars for their selfish motives is one such example. For every question asked in the competition, Jamal derived answer from his life time experience. In other words, there were events in his life which had some connection to the answers. He uses his intelligence and memory to recollect the events and tries his luck. Of course a bit of luck is also necessary in everything one does. Another way of looking at Jamal is that talents are everywhere in forms suppressed, in royal institutions as well as in the slums. Bringing them up to the surface is what heroism is. While young, Jamal made an awkward choice of jumping into the pool of shit to come out of the toilet and finally making it with Amitabachan (a leading actor in India) for an autograph shows his drive and enthusiasm. Jamal meeting her girl friend Lathika back in Mumbai after a long gap is an ecstatic moment. Girls like Lathika after being grown up are eyed seriously by lewd males. Even Jamal had to ruffle with his brother to get Lathika out of him. Both Jamal and Lathika are safe in the end and their love materializes. Jamal talking to Lathika over phone as a lifeline friend is symbolic of Jamal winning his invaluable prize Lathika before winning his 10 million dollar. The movie is a combination of everything Ã¢â¬â scores of music, songs, cinematography, editing, etc. A. R. Rehman struck his chord with his rich and varied notes scoring over horror, melody, love and misery. The distinction shown among all these items with originality and inventiveness are something special which won him the Oscar for Original Scores. The choice and combination of music themes applied make the movie prolific. For example Ã¢â¬Å"Ring ring ringa, Ring ring ringaÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ is used when prostitutes are shown. Ã¢â¬Å"Jai ho, jai hoÃ¢â¬ is used when Jamal and Lathika meet or when there is a heroic deed performed. The Ã¢â¬Å"jai ho jai ho aaja aaja jind shamiyane ke tale aaja jariwale nile aasman ke tale jai ho jai ho ratti ratti. Ã¢â¬ song transcends the barriers of language and reaches out to audience worldwide to enthrall and has yielded him yet another Oscar for song. It is the music that takes the song everywhere. Every time when there is a change of scene, the music is simply astounding. The change of mood is rightly set by the music. The background music of quiz program is not new to the people of India, as the real program on television show was similar to this one. However, the typical music recorded in multiple tracks give thrill and excitement when questions are being rolled out. The song Ã¢â¬Å"I fly like paper, get high like planes If you catch me at the border I got visas in my name If you come around here, I make em all day I get one down in a second if you wait Ã Ã¢â¬ while the train is moving has all the gravity of cheerfulness compassioned with the advent of nature. Music is the language whenever flashbacks have to be short and quick. If the arrival of Taj Mahal has some humorous events in it, the music compensates it with reverence. The background music when the prostitutes are shown in the slums of Mumbai, the humming love music when Jamal meets Lathika after a gap, and the song at the end of the movie which brings winning moments for everyone Ã¢â¬â for the hero, for the director, for the musician, etc is worth mentioning. Whenever the scenes have the power to move the audience, the music leaves an impression in the minds for an everlasting memory. Titanic Titanic is a movie of all times for its unparalleled mixture of fact and fiction filmed on a massive scale. The grandeur of the ship, the differences shown between the rich and poor in the backdrop of Edwardian influence, the love between Rose and Jack tied together in the heart rendering scores of James Horner, the magnanimous touch of James Cameron as writer, director and editor eventually became the first movie of its kind in Hollywood. The movie is screened for just three hours but it comprises a mammoth research by reaching out to the depth of the Atlantic where the original Titanic sank in 1912, and by building a main production set at Rosarito Beach in Baja California, Mexico. As one of the crew members rightly says in the movie, Ã¢â¬Å"The ship is known for grandeur. Ã¢â¬ it has everything in it: the restaurants, swimming pool, elevators, grand staircase connecting seven decks, a huge glass dome, and all the luxury items. The gigantic ship has massive propellers to pull it all along. The cost of first class tickets are so high even close to $4000 for some which is equal to the amount of $50000 today. Cameron begins the movie in a striking manner as he uses the latest submergence technology and the grandeur with which it explores the wreck of Titanic. The entire operation under water around Titanic in the rumbles of James Horner is a rare phenomenon to watch. Ã¢â¬Å"She is the largest moving object ever made by the hand of manÃ¢â¬ as said by a character in the movie, it also felt by the music effect. Brock Lowett, an explorer in the movie is curious to possess the necklace with blue diamond worn by Rose in 1912. He ends up discovering a nude painting of Rose. The 100-year old Rose, watching this incident on television calls Brock Lowett and tells the fact that she is the one in the picture. What rose recollects from her memory is the main story of Titanic. Everyone around Rose including her fiancee Caledon is of typical business people who restrict women. Unable to bear with the economy based love and affection running deep in the hearts of her fiance, Rose decides to commit suicide and runs to edge of Titanic and climbs on the railing. Jack comes at the right time to her rescue and the compassionate words of Jack brought her back to life. Jack boarded the third class in the last minute because of the Jackpot he won. He is only a survivor and is no match to the rich and elegant families of the first class passengers who were made to invite him for a dinner party for rescuing Rose. But Jack is well mannered, clear headed, charming and he feels for others. He has passion for drawing and some of his paintings attract Rose. The movie scripts are written aptly to bring Jack and Rose together after an initial disapproval by Rose when Jack asked her Ã¢â¬Å"Do you really like the guy? Ã¢â¬ Later it turns out to be good and they had a good understanding. Their togetherness in the ship after they started loving each other is the sweetest moment of the movie. It includes JackÃ¢â¬â¢s mystical touch in painting her nakedness wearing only the Heart of the Ocean, their running around the deck and cargo hold of Titanic in joy, their standing at the edge of the ship on the railing with their hands straitened in excitement singing: Ã¢â¬Å"Every night in my dreams I see you. I feel you That is how I know you go. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Ã¢â¬ This song has become the magical spell of the movie Titanic all over the world and this still picture of their stance became the trademark of the movie Titanic. The music fastens with the solo violin bringing momentum. After a while, the fatal iceberg strikes the edge of Titanic and in the next couple of hours or so everything goes under water. The serious episode of the movie begins with the gradual inflow of water into the ship sinking it gradually and bringing panic. The entire mechanism of how a gigantic ship would submerge under water is a massive research effort discovered and shot for screening by James Cameron. Rose and Jack face predicaments in the ship when they are in search of each other as the ship is sinking gradually. The thrill, excitement and horror are maintained well. Silence followed by music and vice versa creates impression in these scenes. Jack and Rose reached the edge of Titanic from where they jump off the drowning ship and were in the waters of Atlantic waiting for a survival boat. No boats are in the vicinity. Jack prepared to be in the water leaving Rose on a piece of oak panel that is available. The chilly water frozen in minus degree centigrade would not keep Jack alive for long. Rose cries in emotion Ã¢â¬Å"Jack come backÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Jack come backÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"There is a boat Jack. Ã¢â¬ The music of the song Ã¢â¬Å"Every night in my dreams, I see you. I feel you, That is how I know you goÃ¢â¬ in low humming voice hardly leaves anyone without tears in eyes. This is one of the greatest emotional scenes on the screens. As she promised Jack she lives until she becomes old enough. It is not just the James Cameron has given The 20th Century Fox has not just produced a movie that has just won 11 Academy awards but has gifted the world a movie of great proportion that would stand all ages. School of Rock School of Rock reveals the power of music through a group of children aged around 10 from a prep school. The spirited hard rock singer and guitarist Dewy Finn masked as a substitute teacher in a class room could not go fizzled out when the music director Craig Wedren has his full support. The hero Dewey Finn visualizes no way out but to be with the rock that paid him nothing. Ã¢â¬Å"Do you want me to give up my band? Ã¢â¬ he goes weird while talking to his friend Ned Schneebly when he pressurizes him to pay the share of his room rent. Voted out from the band due to his hyper active stage antics, Dewy has no source of income to pay off anything. He is a lone talent unexplored on the stage, dreaming of a great rock career. All that he needs is Ã¢â¬Å"One little thing, itÃ¢â¬â¢s musicÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ and he has challenged his band members who voted him out, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ll set up my own band. We are going to start a revolution. Ã¢â¬ So the fire is burning within him contributes to the central theme of the movie. He turns a phone call of Mr. Schneebly in his favor and decides to go as a substitute teacher in the name of Schneebly to make some money for his immediate needs. As desired, he gets into the school and there begins a new lease of life when he spots children attending music classes amidst his boring class room sessions comprising mainly of recess. He senses a vibrant rock band in his students that could back him up back on to the stage. His mind worked brilliantly. He worked in that direction shifting musical instruments back and forth to the class room and away. He picked up students and assigned each student an instrument and engaged them in practice. The music of comedy is well underway with Dewy managing his students answering all their questions to comfort them that they are doing a school project. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s how he tells students instead of telling the truth that he wants to win in the Battle of the Bands. Either ways it is a competition Ã¢â¬â a competition to disclose talents to the public. His conversations with Ms Mullins, the Principal of the preparatory school and other teachers are full of comedy. The words of Dewy, Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s experimental teaching. We were learning in singing songs. Ã¢â¬ confuses the Principal as there is no such thing. Gradually, Ms. Mullins has a special liking for Dewy as he drags her for tea with his artistic eloquence in praise of her profession and her way of handling things. She is much more impressed by his reverence tinged with fun for her profession and especially when he tells her that she is cool and capable. The movie takes a dramatic turn when Schneebly and his fiance come to know of the fraud when Dewy opens up how the check in the name of Schneebly reached him from the preparatory school. The secrets are let out and the police enters the class room when Dewy is in a parents day meet. He is out of school now. Parents are in despair complaining to the Principal about their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s studies suffered. Ms. Mullins has a tough time answering all the parents and so shuts the door in anger. The power of music is still alive with the students. They secretly take the school bus and reach DewyÃ¢â¬â¢s place to pull him up for the Battle of the Bands. Dewy never dreamt students would be so taken by the rock. They rushed to the theater. Their turn is about to come. Surprise mounts up as the parents and the principal too rushed to the theater to rescue their children. The school of Rock is finally on the stage in colorful dresses. Zack is amazing with his guitar. Freddy is rollicking with his drums. Lawrence is working mystery with his keyboard. Tonika enchants the audience with her voice. Ã¢â¬Å"Baby we was making straight As, But we was stuck in a dumb daze, Dont take much to memorize your life, I feel like Ive been hypnotized. Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ Dewy goes wild on his power stance, moving, dancing, rolling all over and jumping into the crowd to bring a swashbuckling finish to the song. Their performance is surprising, unbelievable, absolutely stunning. Every parent delights at his or her child for doing great on the stage. The music in the last few minutes of the movie brings a complete change of moods. The parents who rushed in panic are now cool after discovering great talents in their children. The principal runs out of words when people praised her. The power of rock took everyone by surprise. Finally the music wins. School of Rock fails to win the $20,000 prize but the audience shouts, Ã¢â¬Å"School of RockÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"School of RockÃ¢â¬ repeatedly asking for once more. Once again The School of Rock is on the stage with a song once again. Dewy gets a chance to train students in music after school hours. The filmmaker Richard Linklater has directed the movie in accordance with, Ã¢â¬Å"Guitar in hands and rock in our hearts. Ã¢â¬ References Retrieved March 21, 2009,http://www. mygodwithin. com/2009/02/slum-dog-millionaire-receives-8-oscar. html Retrieved March 21, 2009, http://www. futuremovies. co. uk/review. asp? ID=139 Retrieved March 21, 2009, http://www. hollywoodlot. com/titanic/james-cameron. html
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
The Ancient Greeks believed in a series of myths which explained nature, set up a moral code for the people, and were just folk lore of the people. In this paper, the beginnings of myths, the Greek gods themselves, and several myths concerning morals, nature, and old lore of the Ancients will be discussed. Because the myths and details about the gods were passed along by word of mouth, some myths or gods might be interchanged or different. The Greek myths started as folk lore until it began to explain nature and storytellers integrated a moral code into the myths. Many myths started out as fairy tales. As new and more efficient farming methods became available to the Greek people they were faced with more time in which to do other things. A people who have waste develop a culture all their own. Because Greece was divided into different city- states, many of the myths are different. The culture of storytelling began to involve explanations of nature such as the creation of the horse, spider, and such changes as winter and fire along with the creation of man himself. Slowly, as with any longstanding government, the morals and laws of society leaked into Greek myths in the form of, "The slain shall be avenged by Nemesis (a force which causes people to get revenge)," or just, "Kindness and humbleness are rewarded by the gods." Some myths were even created to support other myths. The myths started with storytelling and developed into a complex system of morals and explanations. The Greek myths were almost fruitless without the intervention of the gods. The gods controlled nature and fought their own battles on the earth, which sometimes caused problems. The first god was the most powerful one until he had children. The first god is called Oranos or in some myths Uranus. He was the first ruler among the gods. Uranus was the heavens and Gaea was the earth and thus they were married. The couple gave birth to many different and odd children but Uranus was cruel to them. Then, Chronos was born as the youngest titan. Chronos dethroned his father and soon after married his sister, Rhea. He didn't want his children to dethrone him so he ate them. However, Zeus overthrew Chronos and established the first real empire of the gods. Zeus settled disputes between the other gods and made sure the humans weren't treated in... ...horselike animals. The gods control the seasons as we know them today in this Greek myth. Hades was on the surface of the earth on business when Eros shot him with an arrow. Hades fell in love with Persephone and stole her away into the Underworld. Demeter, Persephone's mother, searched for her daughter and when she could not find her, froze the earth. Zeus didn't want the earth to wither and die so he sent Hermes to fix the situation. Since Persephone ate part of a pomegranate, she would stay with Hades part of the year and live on the world the rest of the year. All the time she would be gone, Demeter would weep and snow would fall. Fall is caused by her anticipation of her daughter leaving. This myth demonstrates the power of the gods, the power of love, and how fall and winter happen. The Greek gods and myths were a vital part to the ancient Greeks. The myths do explain nature and set up an orderly manner in which people should act. The myths, however, use gods to explain nature in order to substitute for pure logic. All the myths have meanings or explanations in which all the ancient questions are answered. The Greek myths were vital to Grecian society.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
STATE OF THE PHILIPPINE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM Final examination in Economics 1 Room 642 5:31-6:31 Submitted by: Cresanelle Polo Submitted toÃ : Mr. Ceferino Manigos INTRODUCTION Ã¢â¬Å"Tuwid na DaanÃ¢â¬ Ã or the Straight Path is a phrase repeatedly mentioned by President Benigno S. Aquino III to pertain to his governance direction for the country. Essential to this concept ofÃ Ã¢â¬Å"Tuwid na DaanÃ¢â¬ Ã is the battle cryÃ Ã¢â¬Å"Kung Walang Corrupt, Walang Mahirap. Ã The administration believes that corruption is the root cause of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s woes, and eliminating corruption will necessarily lead to renewed investor confidence, eventual growth and development, poverty reduction, and attainment of peace. The straight path, however, does not only pertain to the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s anti-corruption campaign. It also encompasses a way of doing things right, where the process is participatory; the programs are holistic; growth is sustained; the peace policy is com prehensive; and development is sustainable. Through the living examples of our leaders, led by the President, this re-awakened sense of right and wrong continues to be translated to economic value. Before going to the main purpose of this report which is to inform the reader on the present state of the Philippine Agrarian Reform Program for the year 2011, letÃ¢â¬â¢s tackle first the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program. Comprehensive Agrarian Reform- Birth, Struggle & FutureÃ The Philippine comprehensive agrarian reform program (CARP) was envisioned shortly after the Filipino liberation from martial rule in 1986. It was designed to free the majority of the Filipino poor from the bondage of the soil by making them owners of the land they till. It also aims to grant economic-size land to the landless. Comprehensive enough, it covers farmersÃ¢â¬â¢ education, skills training and strong farmers' organization, application of improved technology, and support by the government. The 1987 Philippine Constitution provides in Article 14, Sec. 4. that: The State shall, by law, undertake an agrarian reform program founded on the right of farmers and regular farm workers, who are landless, to own directly or collectively the lands they till or, in the case of other farm workers, to receive a just share of the fruits thereof. To this end, the State shall encourage and undertake the just distribution of all agricultural lands, subject to such priorities and reasonable retention limits as the congress may prescribe, taking into account ecological, developmental, or equity considerations, and subject to the payment of just compensation. In determining retention limits the State, shall respect the right of small landowners, The State shall further provide incentives for voluntary land-sharing. The overriding idea under the Philippine constitution is the preservation of the concept of an Ã¢â¬Å"economic family-size farmÃ¢â¬ as embodied in the past land reform laws. ( the law prescribes 3 hectares to be a family size farm enough to sustain a family) It is also important to note that ownership by beneficiaries can be individually or collectively. Even in collective ownership however, the constitutional mandate is to preserve the control of the tiller over the land a farmer tills. This is so because, agrarian reform is essentially a land-to-the-tiller program; it is based on the right of farmers and regular farm workers to own the lands they till. (pp. 1200-1201 The 1987Constitution of the Philippines, A Commentary; 2003 Edition by Rev. Fr. Joaquin G. Bernas, S. J. ) In the pursuit of the above constitutional provision, the COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM LAW (CARL), R. A. 657 was signed into law by President Corazon Aquino on June 9, 1988. The soul of CARL, R. A. 6657 is embodied in Section 2 which is reproduced below. SECTION 2. Declaration of Principles and Policies. Ã¢â¬â It is the policy of the State to pursue a Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP). The welfare of the landless farmers and farm workers will receive the highest consideration to promote social justice and to move the nation towards sound rural devel opment and industrialization, and the establishment of owner cultivatorship of economic-sized farms as the basis of Philippine agriculture. To this end, a more equitable distribution and ownership of land, with due regard to the rights of landowners to just compensation and to the ecological needs of the nation, shall be undertaken to provide farmers and farm workers with the opportunity to enhance their dignity and improve the quality of their lives through greater productivity of agricultural lands. The agrarian reform program is founded on the right of farmers and regular farm workers, who are landless, to own directly or collectively the lands they till or, in the case of other farm workers, to receive a share of the fruits thereof. To this end, the State shall encourage the just distribution of all agricultural lands, subject to the priorities and retention limits set forth in this Act, having taken into account ecological, developmental, and equity considerations, and subject to the payment of just compensation. The State shall respect the right of small landowners and shall provide incentives for voluntary land-sharing. The State shall recognize the right of farmers, farm workers and landowners, as well as cooperatives and other independent farmers' organization, to participate in the planning, organization, and management of the program, and shall provide support to agriculture through appropriate technology and research, and adequate financial, production, marketing and other support services. The State shall apply the principles of agrarian reform or stewardship, whenever applicable, in accordance with law, in the disposition or tilization of other natural resources, including lands of the public domain, under lease or concession, suitable to agriculture, subject to prior rights, homestead rights of small settlers and the rights of indigenous communities to their ancestral lands. The State may resettle landless farmers and farm workers in its own agricultural estates, which shall be distributed to them in the manner provided by law. By means of appropriate incentives, the State shall encourage th e formation and maintenance of economic-sized family farms to be constituted by individual beneficiaries and small landowners. The State shall protect the rights of subsistence fishermen, especially of local communities, to the preferential use of communal marine and fishing resources, both inland and offshore. It shall provide support to such fishermen through appropriate technology and research, adequate financial, production and marketing assistance and other services, The State shall also protect, develop and conserve such resources. The protection shall extend to offshore fishing grounds of subsistence fishermen against foreign intrusion. Fishworkers shall receive a just share from their labor in the utilization of marine and fishing resources. The State shall be guided by the principles that land has a social function and land ownership has a social responsibility. Owners of agricultural land have the obligation to cultivate directly or through labor administration the lands they own and thereby make the land productive. The State shall provide incentives to landowners to invest the proceeds of the agrarian reform program to promote industrialization, employment and privatization of public sector enterprises. Financial instruments used as payment for lands shall contain features that shall enhance negotiability and acceptability in the marketplace. The State may lease undeveloped lands of the public domain to qualified entities for the development of capital-intensive farms, traditional and pioneering crops especially those for exports subject to the prior rights of the beneficiaries under this Act. The intent of the Philippine Constitution and R. A. 6657 is crystal clear: the promotion of social justice through an equitable distribution of land by making it easier for the disadvantaged to be able to acquire land. Agrarian reform is meant to reduce inequalities as social justice demands. And in its pursuit, land is to be taken for redistribution to the landless. In the process of taking, the law provides for just compensation. As suggested by Rev. Father Joaquin Bernas. S. J. ,just compensation should depend on the farmersÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to pay and not on the standard fair market value or it will not be in accord with the thrust of the law. Fr. Bernas cited land reform in Japan where just compensation was dictated by law and amounted to less than the market value In Japan, according to him, land reform embodied recognition of the reality that expropriation for land reform was not eminent domain pure and simple, but also exercise of police power which necessarily entails loss on the part of those regulated. An analogous situation he said, is the police power of the state to impose price control on essential commodities for the benefit of the public but at the expense of the sellers. ( pp. 1203- 1205, Bernas) The COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM (CARP) under CARL has a 10-year implementation period. It is expiring this year, 2008, after a second extension. The report of the Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) shows that from July, 1987 to December, 2004, it has only 75% rate of ccomplishment. Out of the 4,676,017 hectares of targeted private agricultural land, only 3,499,790 have been distributed. Approximately 1. 2Million hectares remain untouched. Furthermore, according to the University of the Philippines, Los Banos Micro Study, 2007, 75% of the farmer beneficiaries till their land and improve their lives despite palpable lack of support from the government. These farmers are left with the burden of generating capital and are oftentimes forced to make use of their Certificate of Land Ownership Award (CLOA) as collaterals for loans. Among the other problems obstructing the success of land reform in the Philippines are: Ã¢â¬Å"problematicÃ¢â¬ landholdings, such as areas with missing titles, erroneous technical descriptions, and court disputes; insufficient funds for land acquisition and support services. Protest and oppositions by big landowners is a big stumbling block as well. Furthermore, dissatisfaction on the part of the farmer beneficiaries is another blot on the program. The heading of Philippine Daily Inquirer Mindanao (02/10/2008) says: Ã¢â¬Å"Farmers awarded CARP lands seek way out of Ã¢â¬Ëbad dealsÃ¢â¬â¢. The 662 farm workers of the 3,900-hectares Guthrie Estates in San Francisco, Agusan del Sur, Negros Occidental found the deal so onerous as they have not been receiving enough share from the produce of the land assigned to them under a cooperative structure. The farmers have been protesting and negotiating for better arrangements. One cooperative member warned: Ã¢â¬Å"If they will not listen to us, blood will spill over in our land. We have been long dead anyway. Ã¢â¬ Ironically, CARP suffered a setback during the term of President Corazon Aquino. Hacienda Luisita, the Aquino family's own 6,000- hectare estate was exempted from distribution. The hacienda was placed under what is termed the corporative scheme where the farmers were given shares of stocks and instead of owning the land they till, they receive dividends from the net profit of the operation of the hacienda as one intact landholding. A lot more is necessary to implement CARP effectively even at this time when the program period is at its tail end. Among them are: decisiveness on the part of government to implement the law against the mighty and powerful landowners; strict safeguards against land-use conversion; sufficient amount and better management of funds; stronger community-based organization; creative and effective programs for big landholdings. There is an ongoing massive call for CARP extension to be coupled with reforms and more decisive land distribution. On the other hand, landowners are pointing to the flaws and failures of CARP as a basis for terminating the program. Since the birth of CARP, they have been deriding its existence, have been exerting efforts to thwart its implementation and plotting ways to defeat the spirit of land reform. Farmers now pin their hopes on House Bill No. 3059, or the proposed Ã¢â¬Å"Genuine Agrarian Reform Act of 2007Ã¢â¬ . It was filed by representatives of party-list groups Anakpawis, Bayan Muna and Gabriela WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Party. The bill seeks to distribute land for free and expand agrarian reform coverage to all agricultural lands in the country. According to the former DAR Secretary Butch Abad, agrarian reform will not succeed if government and business sector will not do their part. And he believes that poverty and social conflict such as the secession movement are due to landlessness to a significant degree. According to Sec. Abad, the present state of things show land reform has failed. Tenants can not be owner-cultivator and farm manager overnight. After acquiring the farm, they need training, support services, capital. One proof that agrarian reform is not yet a success is that countless farmers have not been given a piece of the land as yet. From the official website of the government we gather some bits of information and here they areÃ¢â¬ ¦ http://www. gov. ph/2011/07/25/the-2011-state-of-the-nation-address-technical-report/ The 2011 State of the Nation Address Technical Report 3. 2 Completed projects to strengthen the agricultural sector 3. 2. 1. Under the continuing regular fund from the DA, a total of 1,814 kilometers of Farm to Market Roads (FMRs) were completed from July 2010 to May 2011, out of the targeted 2,567 kilometers. In addition, 687 kms more FMRs were completed under the locally-funded and foreign assisted projects. Overall, a total of 2,501 kms of completed FMRs provide better access to markets and social services and boost economic activities by allowing goods and products to flow in and out of the barangays. FMRs also help reduce transport costs, spoilage and deterioration of quality of agricultural products, and facilitate delivery of farm inputs. 3. 2. 2. From July 2010 to June 2011, a total of 65Ã tramlines were completed connecting remote areas to FMRs. A total ofÃ 67Ã agricultural tramlines were completed since project start-up in 2009, which is 63%Ã of the targetedÃ 107Ã units to be completed by December 2011. The use of these tramlines cuts the cost of hauling by half from P2 to P1 per kilogram of produce and reduces hauling time significantly from hours to just a few minutes. Inaugurated on 13 April 2011 at Twin Peaks, Tuba, Benguet, a 400-meter tramline has reduced hauling time from 2 hours to five minutes. Farmers pay P1 per kilo of produce to cover the cost of diesel fuel, engine maintenance and other repairs and allowance for the tramline operator. On 25 February 2011, a tramline built by DA-Philmech at a cost of P1. 6 million was inaugurated in La Paz, Zamboanga City, a barangay located 970 meters above sea level. A 370 meter distance between the barangay and the closest national road used to take 12 hours to traverse. With the tramline, travel time over this distance has been reduced to three minutes. A local group, the La Paz FarmersÃ¢â¬â¢ Association operates the tramline collecting a fee of one peso for a load of 350 kilos of corn and vegetables. 3. 2. 3. All in all, in the first 11 months of the Aquino Administration (July 2010 to May 2011), 11,611 hectares of new areas were irrigated, 40,053 hectares were restored, and 171,910 hectares were rehabilitated both for current and carry over projects. Restoration entails repairing the irrigation facility that is currently not functional while rehabilitation means upgrading or improving the facility, which is currently working but has not attained the maximum or designed irrigation efficiency. 3. 2. 4. Put up the following post-harvest facilities: * One hundred eighty seven (187) food terminals from July 2010 to April 2011 benefiting 1,155 small farmers and fishers. These food terminals provide affordable basic food commodities to around 457,859 households who are able to save not only from low-priced commodities but also from cuts in transportation expenses and reduction of middlemen costs. The savings on transportation cost ranges from P8Ã¢â¬âP200 for every trip to the market. * Thirteen (13) or 68% of the targeted 19 Corn Post Harvest Trading Centers (CPHTC) in major corn producing areas nationwide. These centers ensure continuous supply of corn even during the wet season, guarantee premium quality, and open opportunity for other investments in the corn industry. A total of 1,342 small scale composting facilities in the different regions nationwide, reaching 100% of the target, and generating 5,368 jobs. This forms part of the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s promotion of organic farming through the Organic Fertilizer Production Project, which will enable farmers to produce their own organic fertilizer to reduce dependence on expensive synthetic fertil izers. * A total of 56 units of flatbed dryers from July 2010 to April 2011, attaining 100% of the target and generating 402 jobs. These will reduce post-harvest losses during the drying stage of palay and ensure quality drying during the rainy season. Four (4) cold chain facilitiesÃ from July 2010 to May 2011 would enable farmers of high value crops to store their fruits and vegetables in the appropriate temperature and prolong the quality and shelf life of perishable crops, obtaining for the farmers a better selling price for their produce. These facilities were turned over to three (3) cooperatives in Benguet, Palayan City, and San Jose City, benefiting 139 farmers. * Ten (10) units of Village-Type post-harvest facilities as of June 2011, in key corn production areas and strategic demand sites nationwide. Thirty-one (31) more units are expected to be completed and operational by the end of 2011. 3. 3. Fostered a culture of self-reliance 3. 3. 1 Some of the strategies under the Food Staple Self-Sufficiency program include the termination of direct input subsidies to farmers and front-loading of irrigation investments in 2012 and 2013 to increase output as early as possible, thus decreasing the need to import rice. These actions are already bearing fruit as seen in the bumper crop harvest from January to March 2011. 3. 3. 2 The countryÃ¢â¬â¢s rice importation dropped significantly by 80% from an import volume of 2. 2 million MT from July 2009 to June 2010 to 386,243 MT from July 2010 to June 2011. The decrease in volume of actual rice import arrivals can be attributed to the good harvest and the comfortable stock position of the country. Likewise, rice shipments were scheduled better. From here on, NFA buffer stocks will consist mainly of palay purchased from local farmersÃ¢â¬âa lo ng standing demand of the rice farmers. From January to June 2011, the government through the NFA has procured some P7. 64 billion worth of palay from all over the country. This is 16% of the NFA stock. The NFA targets to increase this volume from the harvest from the main cropping season later this year. The total rice imported in 2010 was 2. 38 million MT. For 2011, the government shall import 64% less or 860,000 MT, with 200,000 MT imported by the government, and 660,000 MT by the private sector. For 2012, rice imports shall further decline to 500,000 MT, with 100,000 MT imported by the government and 400,000 MT imported by the private sector. 3. 3. 2. The government was able to increase the average farm gate price of palay by 2. 89% within a short period, thereby immediately increasing the farmerÃ¢â¬â¢s income. Strategic reserves and placements made it possible for the price of rice to remain stable, thereby assuring the affordability and availability of rice to the public. 3. 3. 3. Production in the crops subsector was also up by 8. 19% and the main contributors were palay, corn, sugarcane, and banana. The country has regained its status as net sugar exporter for the current crop year, having recovered from the sugar shortage in 2009-2010 when the country imported raw and refined sugar. news From the official website of department of agricultureÃ¢â¬ ¦ HOUSEÃ APPROVES DARÃ¢â¬â¢S P18. -B BUDGET THE Department Agrarian Reform (DAR) prevailed upon the House of Representatives during the plenary hearing Wednesday for its 2012 budget, thanks largely to Pampanga Rep. Anna York C. Bondoc, who took the cudgels for the agency and pulled it off with poise even as she endured almost six hours of grilling from her colleagues Bondoc, who stood as the sponsor for DARÃ¢â¬â¢s budget, eloquently just ified its P18. 3-billion proposed budget, saying that the agency, despite operating on lean budget each year in the past, has managed to deliver the tasks expected of it. How much more if DAR is provided with sufficient funds,Ã¢â¬ Bondoc said even as she rallied her fellow lawmakers to come in support of DAR, which is in dire need for more funds to complete the distribution of some 1 million hectares of agricultural lands and deliver much-needed support services in the form of basic rural infrastructure projects and skills development program. The DAR said that P10 billion of its total budget for next year will go to land tenureÃ¢â¬â¢s improvement, which include landownersÃ¢â¬â¢ compensation; P7. billion to program beneficiariesÃ¢â¬â¢ development made up of support services in the form of basic rural infrastructure projects and skills development program; and P1 billion to agrarian justice delivery. Bondoc found an ally in the course defending the departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s budget through former DAR Secretary-turned-partylist representatives Nasser Pangandaman of the AA Kasosyo Partylist. Pangandaman sought the replenishment of the credit facility in the DARÃ¢â¬â¢s budget, which was left unfunded, to enable the agency to serve the needs of farmer-beneficiaries for much-needed capital for farm inputs. Coop-Natcco Partylist Rep. Cresente Paez joined Pangandaman in his move, saying that the lack of capital is one of the major obstacles to improving the lives of farmer-beneficiaries, most of them are forced to approach loan sharks for farm inputs. Bondoc agreed with Pangandaman and Paez on the need to restore the budget for credit facility and even asked them to join her in lobbying the Department of Budget and Management (DBM) about it. She said she would furnish the DBM with minutes of what had transpired during the budget hearing at the plenary to give it an insight on the issue. DARÃ HOSTS SEMINAR ON CLIMATE PROOFING FOR AGRARIAN REFORM COMMUNITIES The warning is dire. Scientists say that even if the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s hot temperature on global warming is reduced significantly in the coming years, climate change impacts such as droughts, floods, and other severe weather events are likely to result in food shortages, increase in water and air-borne diseases, infrastructure damage and the of natural resources degradation. To help farmers adapt to these inevitable eventualities, the Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) in cooperation with the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation ; Development (or GIZ) recently conducted a five-day seminar-workshop on Ã¢â¬Å"Climate Proofing for Development: Practical application for agrarian reform communitiesÃ¢â¬ at the Century Park Hotel in Malate, Manila. The GIZ, Adaptation to Climate Change ; Conservation of Biodiversity (ACCBio) trainers and the Phil. Atmospheric Geophysical ; Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) presented to DAR studies made on the ill effects of climate change on farms and farming communities in the country. Undersecretary for Special Programs ; Agrarian Relations Rosalina Bistoyong said the seminar-workshop seeks to understand and learn how to adapt to the climate changes and integrate it in development plans for agrarian reform communities. We at DAR believe that we cannot delay making adaptation plans and actions to ensure that maladaptation [by farmers] will not worsen adverse climate change effects and impede their sustainable development,Ã¢â¬ said Bistoyong. Ã¢â¬Å"Climate adaptation ways like planting trees, composting, using bio-friendly fertilizers, organic farming, are just some of the ways the farmers can use to help mitigate climate change,Ã¢â¬ said Corrine Canlas of GIZ. With the climate change impacts we have been experiencing like floods, typhoons and the el nino and la nina phenome na, implementers need to learn the ways and means to adapt to these [eventualities], so that they can put strategies to add development plans for farmers in the agrarian reform communities,Ã¢â¬ added Canlas. Bistoyong said that the implementers will also teach farmers measures to avoid the bad effects of chemicals on the environment and contribute in minimizing global warming. This course will help our implementers in making necessary developments plans so that our farmers will be able to cope, adapt and sustain their livelihood in the face of climate change,Ã¢â¬ Bistoyong said. AGRARIANÃ BENEFICIARIES TO BENEFIT FROM IRRIGATION AND ROAD PROJECTS CABUCGAYAN, BILIRAN Ã¢â¬â Rice production and farmersÃ¢â¬â¢ income in this fifth class municipality are expected to increase once the rehabilitation of the communal irrigation system (CIS) and a farm-to-market road in the area are completed. Biliran Agrarian Reform Officer Elisea Orapa said rehabilitation works by the National Irrigation Administration (NIA) started early last month, and is expected to be completed in three months time. Orapa cited the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), for rehabilitating the 1. 7-kilometer farm-to-market road in Sitio Kasabangan where some 562 meters of this will be concreted for easier and farther conveyance of farm products to the market. Eliasem Castillo, Regional Director of the Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) in Eastern Visayas, said the projects, courtesy of the Japan International Cooperation Agency-Agrarian Reform Infrastructure Support Project (JICA-ARISP), would help double farm produce of farmer-beneficiaries in the Balaquid Agrarian Reform Community (ARC). Castillo added that the two projects cost about P8-million, with the local government unit providing 50 percent as its counterpart equity. Ismael Aya-ay, chief of the Beneficiaries Development Coordinating Division (BDCD) of the DAR-Biliran said that about 60 of the 530 ARBs in the ARC will directly benefit from the irrigation project, while some 1,686 residents here and in nearby villages will be benefited by the farm-to-market road. ARCs are group of barangays with farmers awarded with land titles where there is a convergence of support services provided by the national and local governments, non-government organizations and foreign-donor communities. PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDÃ TENURE IMPROVEMENT The LTI component seeks to secure the tenurial status of the farmers and farmworkers in the lands they till. This is operationalized either through land acquisition and distribution (LAD) and leasehold operations. LAD involves the redistribution of government and private agricultural lands to landless farmers and farmworkers. ThisÃ is the essence of land reform. It secures farmers' tenure, promotes social equity, and provides them with necessary productive resources needed to ensure their economic viability and productivity. Leasehold operations, on the other hand, is the alternative non-land transfer scheme. It covers all tenanted agricultural lands such those in the retained areas, not yet acquired for distribution under CARP, and those which may be validly coveredÃ under existing laws. With the enactment of RA 9700 or the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program Extension with Reforms in 2009, LAD should be completed by June 30, 2014 on a province-by-province basis. All remaining unacquired and undistributed agricultural lands shall be acquired and distributed as follows: Phase I (01 July 2009 to 30 June 2012) * All remaining lands above fifty (50) hectares; All private agricultural lands with aggregate landholdings in excess of fifty (50) hectares which have already been issued Notices of Coverage (NOCs) on or before Dec. 10, 2008; * Rice and corn lands under PD 27; idle and abandoned lands; Voluntary Offer to Sell (VOS) lands; * All lands foreclosed by government financial institutions (GFIs), PCGG-acquired lands and other government-owned lands; * Voluntary Land Transfer (VLT) submit ted by June 30, 2009 (before effectivity); * Only VOS & Compulsory Acquisition (CA) are allowed after June 30, 2009; Phase II-A (01 July 2009 to 30 June 2012) * All alienable and disposable, arable public agricultural lands; * All public agricultural lands which are to be opened for new development and resettlement; * Aggregate above 24-50 hectares issued NOCs on or before 10 December 2008) Phase II-B (01 July 2012 to 30 June 2013) * Remaining lands in excess of 24 hectares whether or not issued with NOCs Phase III-A (01 July 2012 to 30 June 2013) * 10-24 hectares, insofar as excess of 10 hectares Phase III-B (01 July 2013 to 30 June 2014) above 5 hectares to 10 hectares * Schedule of LAD shall be in accordance with the above order of priority with the ff: * EXCEPTION: priority land reform areas as declared by PARC (Presidential Agrarian Reform Council) ExCom upon recommendation of the PARCCOM (Provincial Agrarian Reform Coordinating Committee) may be covered in advance provided that prior phases have been completed * Phase III-B (5-10 hectares) shall not be implemented until 90% of the provincial balance as of Jan. 1, 2009 has been completed. Under RA 6657 or the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (from 1987 to June 2009), the Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) covered 2,321,064 has. of private agricultural lands and 1, 727, 054 has. non-private agricultural lands covering a total of 4, 049, 018 has. This is equivalent to 2, 396, 857 ARBs installed. Congruently, under RA 9700 (July 2009 Ã¢â¬â December 2010) , 78, 145 has. private agricultural lands and 75, 862 has. of non-private agricultural lands were distributed. This totals to 154,007 has. equivalent to 97, 712 ARBs installed. Strategic Directions up to 2014 To substantially complete asset reform as mandated by RA 9700, the DAR shall: * Ã Complete land acquisition and distribution (LAD) in the CARPER balance; * Ã Prioritize the subdivision of collective Certificates of Land Ownership Awards (CLOAs) involving LBP-compensable lands; * Ã Fast track the documentation and settlement of landowner compensation for already distributed lands; * Ã Synergize and rationalize the efforts of the CARP implementing agencies in all processes of LAD; * Partner with the civil society organizations in the delivery of LTI services, particularly the large-sized private agricultural lands; * Ã Adopt a job-sharing scheme under the ONE-DAR Concept; and * Increase the utilization of the services of geodetic engineers to assist in land acquisition. PROGRAMÃ BENEFICIARIES DEVELOPMENT PBD is the support services component of CARP. It aims to capacitate ARBs and provide them access to the necessary support services to make their lands more productive, ena ble them to venture in income generating livelihood projects and actively participate in community governance. Agrarian reform does not rely on land distribution alone, but also on the delivery of support services, including farm-to-market roads, bridges, irrigation, post harvest facilities, rural electrification, potable water supply, school buildings, multi-purpose buildings; extension services, credit assistance, and trainings. * 709,187 ARBs fully served under the foreign-assisted projects * 7,170 infrastructure projects * 976 communal irrigation projects completed * 3018 functional ARB-organizations operate (ALDA Level 3,4,5) * 316,610 ARB members are already managing their own farm & non-farm enterprises Support services delivered through the Foreign Assisted Projects (FAPs) and Agrarian Reform Fund (ARF): * 13,259 kilometers of FMR * 226,015 hectares serviced by irrigation systems * 194 multi-purpose buildings * 174 bridge projects (10,473 linear meters) * 428 units of post harvest facilities * 999 units of potable water systems Other infrastructure projects provided: * Health centers, school buildings, flood control, rural electrification,& sanitation systems. Non-infrastructure programs include: * Demonstration farms, rural micro-enterprises, training of ARB leaders, & health and nutrition The DAR adopted the development of agrarian reform communities (ARC) in 1993 to improve the lives ofÃ agrarian reform beneficiaries (ARBs). It was the department's key strategy to accelerate and sustain economic growth in agrarian reform and rural areas through a people-centered, holistic and area focused approach in community development. Since then, the DAR has launched 2,100 ARCs covering 1. million of ARBs in 9,076 barangays. Because of the size limitation of ARCs and the increasing number of ARBs in need of basic support services, the DAR expanded the coverage of its support services through the KALAHI (Kapit-Bisig Laban sa Kahirapan) Agrarian Reform Zones (KARZones). A KARZone is a contiguous area which embraces both ARC barangays and non-ARC barangays within the zone. Strategic Directions up to 2014: The agrarian reform must be able to lift the ARBs out of poverty and transform them into drivers of rural economic growth. Land distribution is only the first step. Provision of adequate and timely support services are impetus to make the awarded lands productive. Thus, PBD priorities for 2012-2014 shall be to: * Ã Undertake convergence initiatives with rural development agencies to complement the resources and streamline the efforts of DAR and DENR; * Ã Ink public-private partnerships (PPPs), develop models of collaboration and design business models in the agrarian reform areas with the participation of the CSOs, academe, research and development institutions and LGUs; * Ã Expand the ODA portfolio in order to augment funds for PBD; * Ã Operationalize the LTI-PBD integration on a province-to-province basis; * Ã Shift focus of low LAD-balance provinces to PBD; andÃ * Unlock credit facilities for the agrarian reform beneficiaries through capacity development for credit providers and farmer-borrowers, providing support to risk mitigating institutions and making available credit information to credit providers AGRARIANÃ JUSTICE DELIVERY Delivery of agrarian justice has two features: the agrarian legal assistance and adjudication of cases. Agrarian legal assistance is comprised of resolution of agrarian law implementation (ALI) cases, ARB representation before judicial and quasi-judicial bodies, and mediation and conciliation. On the other hand, Adjudication of cases involves the resolution of cases by the DAR Adjudication Board (DARAB) and any of its salas. Under RA 6657, the DAR is vested with the primary jurisdiction to determine and adjudicate agrarian reform matters and to extend free legal assistance to farmer-beneficiaries affected by agrarian cases. There are three types of cases under this program namely: judicial or court cases, quasi-judicial, and cases related to agrarian law implementation (ALI). The first two types involve representation of farmers by DAR lawyers before the regular courts and DAR Adjudication Board, respectively. The third type involves the administrative rendering of decision on exemption, conversion and retention. The DAR at present utilizes more aggressive alternative dispute resolution techniques in mediation to reduce conflicts maturing into court cases. The general objective is to persuade the contending parties to settle their disputes amicably or out of court before the DAR. Strategic Directives: The legal sector intends to provide effective and timely support not only for agrarian reform frontliners in the field of operations and support services but also for the ARBs. Hence, to speed up the resolution of agrarian-related cases, the sector shall: * Ã Put the legal framework in place to expedite the LAD process and undertake PBD lawyering; * Ã Rationalize DAR lawyersÃ¢â¬â¢ and paralegalsÃ¢â¬â¢ appreciation and decision on cases by developing common templates and legal outlines; * Ã Improve capabilities of DAR lawyers and legal officers to adequately address AR challenges; and * Tap information and communication technology to enhance legal work.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Engl 1302 Mr. Reho Requirements for Paper 1 one of the following stories, analyzing a literary strategy or technique the author uses to make the story more effective. Tie the use of the strategy or technique to one of the literary elements mentioned in our book. Ã¢â¬Å"A P.Ã¢â¬ Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing. Ed. X.J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia. 10th ed. New York: Pearson Longman, 2007. 16-20. Grimm, Jakob and Wilhelm. Ã¢â¬Å"Godfather Death.Ã¢â¬ Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing. Ed. X.J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia. 10th ed. New York: Pearson Longman, 2007. 12-13. Hawthorne, Nathaniel. Young Goodman Brown. Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing. Ed.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Almost all stories have plots, and authors employ plots in many different ways. If you can show the particular way in which an author makes use of plot to further his or her story, you have said something substantial. We are interested in learning about the particular way that Hawthorne uses colors and names as character symbols in Ã¢â¬Å"Young Goodman Brown,Ã¢â¬ or the specific way that Updike in Ã¢â¬Å"A P Ã¢â¬ shows the world of the grocery store society as a way to enable Sammy s character to hopefully mature. Try to develop your discussion by focusing on a particular strategy the author uses and what effect that strategy has on the reader. Why did the author choose this particular strategy over other options that might have presented themselves? Does the strategy enable the author to do anything? Are there any constraints in usin g the strategy? 5 summary is a brief retelling of the events of the story in your own wordsexegesis is an explanation of the way the story works or what it meansÃ¢â¬â¢t just summarize a story. Discuss it! 6 Ã¢â¬Å"meaningÃ¢â¬ that the author wants to illustrate: it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be as preachy as a moral or a lesson. It can just be the point of the story or the dominant impression we take away from our reading. 7 8 When you refer to the narrative of the story, use the present tense, as in the following: Ã¢â¬Å"Sammy decides that he can no longer continue to work at the store.Ã¢â¬ DonÃ¢â¬â¢t write: Ã¢â¬Å"Sammy decided that he could no longerShow MoreRelatedEssay on Critical Analysis on Godfather Death1015 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCRITICAL ANALYSIS ON GODFATHER DEATH, A FAIRY TALE WRITTEN BY JACOB LUDWIG GRIMM AND WILHELM CARL GRIMM This story is a German fairy tale translated by Jacob Ludwig Grimm (1785-1863) and Wilhelm Carl Grimm (1786-1859), brothers born in Germany. The story centers on a 13th son born to a poor old man who can not afford to feed his new offspring. In order to provide for him the poor old man must choose a godfather for his son. 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Death agrees to be the godfather andRead MoreSymbolism of God Father Death1195 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAn Analysis of the Symbolism in Brothers Grimm Ã¢â¬Å"Godfather DeathÃ¢â¬ In literature, symbolism is used to suggest an underlying meaning in a story. In the story of Ã¢â¬Å"Godfather Death,Ã¢â¬ a quite ironic title, the Grimm brothers used a multitude of symbols to convey the storyÃ¢â¬â¢s moral value. The Grimm brothers used seven symbols in this story. All of them play a part in conveying the message that death cannot be defied, death is constant, and death is fair. The father in this story searches for a godfatherRead MoreThe Godfather and the Meaning of Family1055 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Godfather A family is a basic social unit consisting of parents and their children, and is considered a group, whether they reside together or not; the traditional family, which usually consists of family values and beliefs. In American literature family serves as a base in our society which can be shaped and molded into many different forms. Mario PuzoÃ¢â¬â¢s The Godfather demonstrates family as a successful business, with strict and traditional Italian roots. The story is focuses on the CorleoneRead MoreBrothers Grimm and Beautiful Mind1109 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesA Beautiful Mind Film Analysis A Beautiful Mind Film Analysis This movie is based on the true story of the brilliant mathematician John Forbes Nash Jr. He made remarkable advancements in the field of mathematics at a young age and had a very promising future. Unfortunately, John Nash had problems deciphering the difference betwe Premium 855 Words 4 Pages * Film Analysis: a Beautiful Mind WEEK 3 A Beautiful Mind Film Analysis xxxxxx x. xxxxxx xx UniversityRead MoreThen and Now: The Face of the Cosa Nostra1112 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesimportant feature of Cosa Nostra Ã¢â¬â the code of silence or omerta. Omerta is the oath of honour and loyalty to the clan or family, the sworn member cannot not betray his clan or family, even if his life is at stake. The breach of omerta is the penalty of death. In the beginning of 20th century the Cosa Nostra was a very influential organized group, which ruled a broad range of illegal activities and it seemed that its existence is safe. But this situation did not last long. When Benito Mussolini came toRead MoreThe Sopranos1696 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPage 1 Now revised and expanded, including a very revealing radio interview with David Chase in April of 2008! *Dozens of new visuals on all 4 pages and new content (Ã¢â¬Å"Death and David ChaseÃ¢â¬ ) added to Part II. **Check out an incredible Sopranos tribute video at the end of page 4. *Note from author (December 6, 2010): Its been over three years since the finale of the Sopranos, yet the ending continues to be discussed and debated to this day. My piece has become more popular than I ever could haveRead More Identifying Heroes: The Godfather and Pulp Fiction Essay3269 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pages Identifying Heroes: The Godfather and Pulp Fiction The form of Classical Hollywood films is, first and foremost, invisible. In a Classical Hollywood film, the narrative is foremost, and style serves the narrative. Camera angles, lighting and editing patterns such as the shot/reverse-shot pattern aim to give us the best possible perspective on the unfolding events(1). These events are arranged in a strongly causality-oriented linear narrative, with one event causing the next. This narrative is arranged
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